A new strategy was shown for the manipulation of autoantibody production in humans. Antiidiotypic antibody to human anti-DNA autoantibody was conjugated with neocarzinostatin (NCS), a cytotoxic agent, by using N-succimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate as a coupling agent. Human B cell clones, which produce anti-DNA autoantibodies, were killed by in vitro treatment with antiidiotype (Id)-NCS conjugates, while clones expressing an Id with irrelevant specificity were unaffected. These results indicate that treatment with anti-Id-NCS conjugates can act as a potent and specific means of generating immunosuppression of autoantibody production. This approach will have a significant advantage in aborting clones that are not effectively suppressed for the autoantibodies by anti-Id antibodies alone, and will result in a potential therapeutic treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus.
T Sasaki, T Muryoi, O Takai, E Tamate, Y Ono, Y Koide, N Ishida, K Yoshinaga
The administration of epinephrine to humans increases natural killer (NK) cell activity and numbers. If endogenous catecholamines regulate NK cells, then their activity should be increased by cocaine, an agent that potentiates endogenous catecholamines. We investigated the in vivo effect of cocaine on NK cell activity and on the distribution of lymphocyte subsets, including NK cells. Intravenous cocaine (0.6 mg/kg) produced a three- to fourfold increase in NK cell activity in peripheral blood. The increase was accompanied by a marked and selective increase in circulating NK cells, as identified by the Fc receptor (Leu-11). Normal saline and benzoylecgonine, a major metabolite of cocaine, had little effect on NK cell activity or on levels of Leu-11+ cells. Other lymphocyte subpopulations were not increased by cocaine. The time course of the alterations in NK cell numbers and activity paralleled plasma levels of cocaine. In vitro cocaine did not increase NK cell activity. Our results indicate that cocaine selectively alters the activity and distribution of the NK lymphocyte subset. Because cocaine increases the activity of endogenous catecholamines, these findings suggest that human NK cells are selectively regulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
C Van Dyke, A Stesin, R Jones, A Chuntharapai, W Seaman
Deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) lyase affects the metabolism of leucine as well as ketogenesis. This disorder is one of an increasing list of inborn errors of metabolism that presents clinically like Reye's Syndrome or nonketotic hypoglycemia. Four patients with proven 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency were shown to excrete a new diagnostically specific metabolite. The technique of fast atom bombardment and tandem mass spectrometry revealed that only 3-methylglutaryl-CoA is a substrate for acylcarnitine formation. Neither 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA nor 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA are excreted as acylcarnitines. The excretion of 3-methylglutarylcarnitine may explain, in part, the apparent secondary carnitine deficiency in this disorder. Carnitine supplementation with moderate dietary restrictions may be a useful treatment strategy for this disorder.
C R Roe, D S Millington, D A Maltby
The kidney maintains constancy of body fluid volume by regulating urinary sodium (Na) excretion. In chronic renal failure, the reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is accompanied by an increase in Na excretion per nephron if dietary Na intake is not changed. Reduction in Na intake in proportion to reduced GFR obviates this adaptive increase in tubule Na excretion. To examine the potential role of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in modulating the enhanced Na excretion per nephron in chronic renal failure, we studied rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation on low, normal, and high Na intakes. Urinary Na excretion increased with increasing dietary Na in all groups, and Na excretion per nephron was increased in 5/6 nephrectomized rats as compared with sham-operated rats on the higher Na intakes. Plasma ANP levels were unaffected by dietary Na manipulations in sham-operated rats, but rose progressively in 5/6 nephrectomized rats with increasing Na intake. Despite extensive nephron reduction, however, plasma ANP levels failed to rise in uremic rats on low Na diets and in this group Na excretion per nephron also failed to rise. We conclude that enhanced ANP secretion may play an important role in promoting the adaptive increase in Na excretion per nephron in chronic renal failure. Restriction of dietary Na in the setting of reduced GFR obviates the stimulation of ANP secretion as well as the adaptive increase in Na excretion rate per nephron.
S Smith, S Anderson, B J Ballermann, B M Brenner
We report that transfusions of RT1u Wistar-Furth (WF) spleen cells prevented spontaneous diabetes in the RT1u BB/W rat while RT1b Buffalo rat spleen cells did not. In addition, donor origin WF T lymphocytes were detected in nondiabetic-susceptible BB/W recipients 5 mo after transfusion. Survival of donor-origin lymphocytes may provide the cellular mechanism by which major histocompatibility complex-compatible WF spleen cell transfusions prevent BB rat diabetes.
A A Rossini, J P Mordes, D L Greiner, K Nakano, M C Appel, E S Handler
Glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity is an indicator of selenium status in selenium-deficient individuals. Utilizing polyclonal monospecific antibodies to purified erythrocyte GSHPx, we were able to determine the relationship between enzymatic activity and protein content. In erythrocytes from a selenium-deficient individual who was treated with selenium, and in HL-60 cells grown in the absence of selenium and then returned to selenium-containing medium, there was a direct relationship between enzymatic activity and protein content. Thus, selenium deficiency results not only in a decrease of GSHPx activity, but also in a decrease of GSHPx protein.
K Takahashi, P E Newburger, H J Cohen
The development of drug resistance by tumor cells is a major obstacle to the cure of human malignancy. Cyclosporin A (CsA) completely reverses primary resistance to vincristine and cross resistance to daunorubicin in a pleiotropic drug-resistant subline of human T cell acute lymphatic leukemia. This subline is over 50-fold resistant to vincristine and fivefold resistant to daunorubicin. CsA has little effect on vincristine or daunorubicin activity in drug-sensitive parental leukemia and corrects daunorubicin resistance without altering cellular daunorubicin accumulation.
L M Slater, P Sweet, M Stupecky, S Gupta
When blood coagulation takes place in the presence of calcium ions, alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2PI) is cross-linked to fibrin by activated coagulation Factor XIII (XIIIa) and thereby contributes to the resistance of fibrin to fibrinolysis. It was previously shown that the cross-linking reaction is a reversible one, since the alpha 2PI-fibrinogen cross-linked complex could be dissociated. In the present study we have shown that the alpha 2PI-fibrin cross-linking reaction is also a reversible reaction and alpha 2PI which had been cross-linked to fibrin can be released from fibrin by disrupting the equilibrium, resulting in a decrease of its resistance to fibrinolysis. When the fibrin clot formed from normal plasma in the presence of calcium ions was suspended in alpha 2PI-deficient plasma of buffered saline, alpha 2PI was gradually released from fibrin on incubation. When alpha 2PI was present in the suspending milieu, the release was decreased inversely to the concentrations of alpha 2PI in the suspending milieu. The release was accelerated by supplementing XIIIa or the presence of a high concentration of the NH2-terminal 12-residue peptide of alpha 2PI (N-peptide) which is cross-linked to fibrin in exchange for the release of alpha 2PI. When the release of alpha 2PI from fibrin was accelerated by XIIIa or N-peptide, the fibrin became less resistant to the fibrinolytic process, resulting in an acceleration of fibrinolysis which was proportional to the degree of the release of alpha 2PI. These results suggest the possibility that alpha 2PI could be released from fibrin in vivo by disrupting the equilibrium of the alpha 2PI-fibrin cross-linking reaction, and that the release would result in accelerated thrombolysis.
J Mimuro, S Kimura, N Aoki
Fibrin formation and turnover are intimately associated with inflammation and wound healing. To explore whether fibrin(ogen)-derived peptides exert direct effects upon cells involved in inflammation and tissue repair we examined the capacity of human fibrinopeptide B (hFpB), a thrombin-derived proteolytic cleavage product of the fibrinogen B beta-chain, to stimulate neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and fibroblasts. hFpB caused directed cell migration of PMN and fibroblasts that was optimal at approximately 10(-8) M. This chemotactic activity was blocked by preincubating hFpB with antiserum to hFpB. hFpB was not chemotactic for monocytes. The chemotactic potency of hFpB for PMN was equivalent to that of anaphylatoxin from the fifth component of human complement (C5a), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and for fibroblasts its chemotactic activity was comparable to that of platelet-derived growth factor. hFpB did not interact with PMN receptors for C5a, LTB4, or fMLP as (a) desensitization with 10(-7) M hFpB abolished chemotaxis to hFpB but had no effect upon chemotaxis to C5a, LTB4, or fMLP and (b) induction of chemotactic responses to fMLP and LTB4 in neutrophilic leukemic cells (HL-60 cells) by incubation with dimethylsulfoxide did not extend to hFpB. Like fMLP, hFpB caused a rapid, dose-dependent increase in PMN cytoskeletal associated actin, but unlike fMLP, hFpB did not cause PMN aggregation, release of lysosomal enzymes (lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase), or the production of superoxide anion. These results suggest that hFpB may have a role in recruiting PMN and fibroblasts at sites of fibrin deposition and turnover. The capacity of hFpB to cause PMN chemotaxis without causing concurrent release of lysosomal enzymes or the production of superoxide anion is further evidence for the complexity of PMN responses to chemotactic agents.
R M Senior, W F Skogen, G L Griffin, G D Wilner
Epidermal cell-derived thymocyte activating factor (ETAF), a cytokine produced by keratinocytes, has previously been shown to be biochemically and functionally very similar, if not identical, to interleukin 1 (IL-1). Both ETAF and IL-1 have been demonstrated to be chemotactic for neutrophils and mononuclear cells in vitro. In order to demonstrate that this activity has physiological relevance we have used a simple in vivo model. The present study demonstrates that injection of high-titer ETAF or purified recombinant murine IL-1 into the mouse footpad results in an influx of neutrophils into the site with peak accumulation at 4 h. Footpad swelling also occurs with a time course roughly paralleling that of the neutrophil accumulation. Injection of control proteins failed to reproduce this phenomenon. Margination of neutrophils within blood vessels was seen within 1 h of injection of ETAF or IL-1, followed by entry into the stroma by 4 h. This suggests that chemotactic activity and not merely increased adherence or inhibition of migration is occurring. 5-10 d of daily, subcutaneous injection of ETAF on the mouse flank resulted in an infiltrate of neutrophils, and to a lesser degree, mononuclear cells in association with epidermal hyperplasia, subcutaneous fibrosis, and focal muscle necrosis in the panniculus carnosus. These findings were not seen in control sites injected with media. These findings provide direct in vivo experimental evidence suggesting a physiologic role for ETAF/IL-1 in local inflammation.
R D Granstein, R Margolis, S B Mizel, D N Sauder